Translation is the process of transforming a written text from one language into another language while preserving the meaning and intent of the original. This requires a thorough understanding of the source, and the ability to accurately and succinctly convert this content into the target language, all the while making the text sound like it was always written in that language.
Medical Translation requires in-depth knowledge and understanding of medical terminology, both in the source and target languages. The translator needs to be familiar with medical abbreviations and the writing style used in the medical field, whether it is writing a discharge summary, documenting a surgical procedure, or setting up a clinical study. The translator must be highly attentive to every detail, and be able to transcribe the message accurately into the target language without losing or distorting any of the information.
Examples: discharge summaries, surgical and radiological reports, medical journal articles, patient surveys and questionnaires, patient information in the form of brochures, websites and online articles, applications to Ethics Committees, applications for clinical study approval, and others.
Pharmacological Translation is a highly specialised field, requiring thorough knowledge of specific procedures and processes and the accepted terms in both the source and target language. The translation must be done with the utmost accuracy to avoid any changes to the content, as the smallest mistake can have an impact on the health of patients, consumers or clinical study participants.
Examples: instructions for use, clinical study documentation, normative documentation and patient information brochures.
Literary Translation is both an art and a science. The translator needs to have a deep understanding of all the nuances of the source text, including any cultural or historical references, idioms, turns of phrase or jokes specific to the particular language, and to be able to re-create this in the target language, making it sound completely natural and yet as close as possible to the idea of the original. The translator must possess high-level writing skills since they become involved in the process of creative writing while they translate literary works.
Examples: poems, short stories, fiction and non-fiction novels, movie scripts and screenplays.
Computer Game Translation requires love and understanding of this particular field. The translator needs to be familiar with the game to be translated and be willing to read reviews, watch walk-throughs and even play the game themselves. The translator needs to have knowledge of current slang and common computer game terminology, and be prepared to work closely with the game developers and share their vision. Computer Game Translation is also more closely related to subtitling, as there is often a limited amount of space available on the screen for text, so dialogue and scene descriptions may have length restrictions.