Transcription involves converting speech recordings and audio files into printed text. Transcription can be a faithful reproduction of all the sounds heard in an audio file (verbatim transcription), or can only include actual speech, without the ‘hmmm’s, ‘ah’s, coughs, pauses, and so on (clean transcription). Transcription can also include time stamps to indicate where in the audio file this text occurs. In some cases, transcription can then be followed by translation.